The certificate was issued by a French organization dedicated to honoring soldiers who died fighting in Champagne (Association du Souvenir aux Morts des Armes de Champagne); this document was presented to survivors, however.
In the passage Du Bois critiques Booker T. Washington's methods for the education and assimilation of African Americans in society: "...it has been claimed that the Negro can survive only through submission. Mr. Washington distinctly asks that...
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